IBD on PubMed

Systematic review: Safety of balloon assisted enteroscopy in Crohn's disease.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Systematic review: Safety of balloon assisted enteroscopy in Crohn's disease.

World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct 28;22(40):8999-9011

Authors: Arulanandan A, Dulai PS, Singh S, Sandborn WJ, Kalmaz D

Abstract
AIM: To determine the overall and comparative risk of procedure related perforation of balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE) in Crohn's disease (CD).
METHODS: Systematic review (PROSPERO #CRD42015016381) of studies reporting on CD patients undergoing BAE. Seventy-three studies reporting on 1812 patients undergoing 2340 BAEs were included. Primary outcome of interest was the overall and comparative risk of procedure related perforation of diagnostic BAE in CD. Secondary outcomes of interest were risk of procedure related perforation of diagnostic double balloon enteroscopy (DBE), risk of procedure related perforation of therapeutic BAE, efficacy of stricture dilation, and clinical utility of endoscopically assessing small bowel disease activity.
RESULTS: Per procedure perforation rate of diagnostic BAE in CD was 0.15% (95%CI: 0.05-0.45), which was similar to diagnostic BAE for all indications (0.11%; IRR = 1.41, 95%CI: 0.28-4.50). Per procedure perforation rate of diagnostic DBE in CD was 0.12% (95%CI: 0.03-0.44), which was similar to diagnostic DBE for all indications (0.22%; IRR = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.06-0.24). Per procedure perforation rate of therapeutic BAE in CD was 1.74% (95%CI: 0.85-3.55). Eighty-six percent of therapeutic perforations were secondary to stricture dilation. Dilation was attempted in 207 patients and 30% required surgery during median follow-up of 18 months. When diagnostic BAE assessed small bowel disease activity, changes in medical therapy resulted in endoscopic improvement in 77% of patients.
CONCLUSION: Diagnostic BAE in CD has a similar rate of perforation as diagnostic BAE for all indications and can be safely performed in assessment of mucosal healing.

PMID: 27833391 [PubMed - in process]

Fecal microbiota in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Fecal microbiota in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis.

World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct 28;22(40):8929-8939

Authors: Li KY, Wang JL, Wei JP, Gao SY, Zhang YY, Wang LT, Liu G

Abstract
AIM: To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology.
METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons. The band profiles and similarity indices were analyzed digitally. The predominant microbiota in different groups was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene.
RESULTS: Microbial biodiversity in the healthy controls was significantly higher compared with the UC groups (P < 0.001) and IPAA groups (P < 0.001). Compared with healthy controls, the UC patients in remission and those in the mildly active stage, the predominant species in patients with moderately and severely active UC changed obviously. In addition, the proportion of the dominant microbiota, which was negatively correlated with the disease activity of UC (r = -6.591, P < 0.01), was decreased in pouchitis patients. The numbers of two types of bacteria, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale, were reduced in UC. Patients with pouchitis had an altered microbiota composition compared with UC patients. The microbiota from pouchitis patients was less diverse than that from severely active UC patients. Sequencing results showed that similar microbiota, such as Clostridium perfringens, were shared in both UC and pouchitis.
CONCLUSION: Less diverse fecal microbiota was present in patients with UC and pouchitis. Increased C. perfringens in feces suggest its role in the exacerbation of UC and pouchitis.

PMID: 27833384 [PubMed - in process]

Indications and surgical options for small bowel, large bowel and perianal Crohn's disease.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Indications and surgical options for small bowel, large bowel and perianal Crohn's disease.

World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct 28;22(40):8892-8904

Authors: Toh JW, Stewart P, Rickard MJ, Leong R, Wang N, Young CJ

Abstract
Despite advancements in medical therapy of Crohn's disease (CD), majority of patients with CD will eventually require surgical intervention, with at least a third of patients requiring multiple surgeries. It is important to understand the role and timing of surgery, with the goals of therapy to reduce the need for surgery without increasing the odds of emergency surgery and its associated morbidity, as well as to limit surgical recurrence and avoid intestinal failure. The profile of CD patients requiring surgical intervention has changed over the decades with improvements in medical therapy with immunomodulators and biological agents. The most common indication for surgery is obstruction from stricturing disease, followed by abscesses and fistulae. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in CD is high but the likelihood of needing surgery for bleeding is low. Most major gastrointestinal bleeding episodes resolve spontaneously, albeit the risk of re-bleeding is high. The risk of colorectal cancer associated with CD is low. While current surgical guidelines recommend a total proctocolectomy for colorectal cancer associated with CD, subtotal colectomy or segmental colectomy with endoscopic surveillance may be a reasonable option. Approximately 20%-40% of CD patients will need perianal surgery during their lifetime. This review assesses the practice parameters and guidelines in the surgical management of CD, with a focus on the indications for surgery in CD (and when not to operate), and a critical evaluation of the timing and surgical options available to improve outcomes and reduce recurrence rates.

PMID: 27833380 [PubMed - in process]

Endogenous polyclonal anti-IL-1 antibody responses potentiate IL-1 activity during pathogenic inflammation.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Endogenous polyclonal anti-IL-1 antibody responses potentiate IL-1 activity during pathogenic inflammation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Nov 7;:

Authors: Spohn G, Arenas-Ramirez N, Bouchaud G, Boyman O

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Particular neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to certain cytokines act as agonists in vivo by protection of the cytokine's active site and prolongation of cytokine half-life. While this principle might be useful for targeted immunotherapy, its role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and autoimmunity is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether slight, structurally non-relevant modifications of the prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during an immune response could elicit polyclonal anti-IL-1β antibody responses that modulated IL-1β's in vivo activity.
METHODS: We engineered two different IL-1β variants, thereby mimicking the process of cytokine modification occurring during inflammation, and conjugated them to virus-like particles, followed by immunization of mice. The resulting polyclonal anti-IL-1β antibody responses were assessed using in vitro and in vivo assays as well as two relevant (auto-) inflammatory murine models.
RESULTS: While antibody responses generated to one variant were potently inhibiting IL-1β, antibody responses induced by the other variant even potentiated the in vivo effects of IL-1β; the latter led to enhanced morbidity in two different IL-1β-mediated mouse models, including a model of inflammatory bowel disease and an inflammatory arthritis model.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that endogenous polyclonal anti-cytokine antibody responses can enhance the cytokine's activity in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

PMID: 27833025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Radiation exposure in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome in the years 2001-2011.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Radiation exposure in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome in the years 2001-2011.

Scand J Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 10;:1-6

Authors: Englund H, Lidén K K, Lind T, Sundström T, Karling P

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare cumulative ionizing radiation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for the years 2001-2011. To study how radiation exposure change over time in patients with newly diagnosed IBD and factors associated with radiation exposure.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All radiological investigations performed between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 were retrospectively recorded in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 103), ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 304) and IBS (n = 149). Analyses were done with Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square test.
RESULTS: The median total cumulative radiation exposure in mSv for CD (20.0, inter quartile range (IQR) 34.8), UC (7.01, IQR 23.8), IBS (2.71, IQR 9.15) and the proportion of patients who had been exposed for more than 50 mSv during the study period (CD 19%, UC 11%, IBS 3%) were significantly higher in the patients with CD compared to patients with UC (p < .001) and IBS (p < .001), respectively. In turn, patients with UC had significantly higher doses than patients with IBS (p = .005). Risk factors for radiation exposure were female gender (CD), early onset (UC), ileocolonic location (CD), previous surgery (CD and UC), depression (IBS) and widespread pain (IBS). In newly diagnosed CD, there was a significant decline in median cumulative radiation dose in mSv (17.2 vs. 12.0; p = .048) during the study period.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CD are at greatest risk for high cumulative radiation exposure, but there is a decline in exposure during the late 2000s. Non-colectomized patients with UC and patients with IBS have a relatively low risk of cumulative radiation exposure.

PMID: 27832710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

FNDC5 relates to skeletal muscle IGF-I and mitochondrial function and gene expression in obese men with reduced growth hormone.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

FNDC5 relates to skeletal muscle IGF-I and mitochondrial function and gene expression in obese men with reduced growth hormone.

Growth Horm IGF Res. 2016 Feb;26:36-41

Authors: Srinivasa S, Suresh C, Mottla J, Hamarneh SR, Irazoqui JE, Frontera W, Torriani M, Stanley T, Makimura H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of skeletal muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression and circulating irisin to the GH/IGF-I axis and to skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and mitochondria-related gene expression in obese men.
DESIGN: Fifteen abdominally obese men with reduced growth hormone received 12weeks of recombinant human GH (rhGH). Before and after treatment, they underwent (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery as a measure of mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle biopsy to assess expression of mitochondrial-related genes. Serum irisin and IGF-I and skeletal muscle FNDC5 and IGF-I mRNA were measured.
RESULTS: At baseline, skeletal muscle FNDC5 mRNA was significantly and positively associated with IGF-I mRNA (ρ=0.81, P=0.005) and rate of PCr recovery (ρ=0.79, P=0.006). Similar relationships of circulating irisin to IGF-I mRNA (ρ=0.63, P=0.05) and rate of PCr recovery (ρ=0.48, P=0.08) were demonstrated, but were not as robust as those with muscle FNDC5 expression. Both serum irisin and skeletal muscle FNDC5 mRNA were significantly associated with PPARγ (ρ=0.73, P=0.02 and ρ=0.85, P=0.002), respectively. In addition, FNDC5 mRNA was correlated with skeletal muscle PGC-1α (ρ=0.68, P=0.03), NRF1 (ρ=0.66, P=0.04) and TFAM (ρ=0.79, P=0.007) mRNA. Neither serum irisin nor muscle mRNA expression of FNDC5 changed with rhGH treatment.
CONCLUSION: These novel data in skeletal muscle demonstrate that local expression of FNDC5 is associated with mRNA expression of IGF-I and mitochondrial function and mitochondria-related gene expression in obese subjects with reduced growth hormone and suggest a potential role for FNDC5 acting locally in muscle in a low GH state. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between the GH/IGF-I axis and irisin.

PMID: 26774404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparative Effect of the I3.1 Probiotic Formula in Two Animal Models of Colitis.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Comparative Effect of the I3.1 Probiotic Formula in Two Animal Models of Colitis.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2016 Nov 10;

Authors: Lorén V, Manyé J, Fuentes MC, Cabré E, Ojanguren I, Espadaler J

Abstract
Use of probiotic therapy is an active area of investigation to treat intestinal disorders. The clinical benefits of the I3.1 probiotic formula (Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT7484, CECT7485) and P. acidilactici (CECT7483)) were demonstrated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of I3.1 in two experimental models of colitis, a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model and an interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice model. Colitis was induced in 32 8-week-old Balb/c mice by administering 3% (w/v) DSS in drinking water for 5 days. Probiotics were administered orally (I3.1 or VSL#3, 1 × 10(9) CFU daily) for 10 days before the administration of DSS. Also, probiotics (I3.1 or VSL#3, 1 × 10(9) CFU daily) were administered orally to 36 6-week-old C57B6J IL-10(-/-) mice for 10 weeks. Body weight was recorded daily. Colon samples were harvested for histological examination and cytokine measurements. Body weight after DSS administration did not change in the I3.1 group, whereas the VSL#3 group had weight loss. Also, I3.1 normalized IL-6 to levels similar to that of healthy controls and significantly increased the reparative histologic score. In the IL-10-deficient model, both VSL#3 and I3.1 reduced the severity of colitis compared to untreated controls, and I3.1 significantly reduced the levels of IFN-γ compared to the other two groups. In conclusion, I3.1 displays a protective effect on two murine models of experimental colitis. Results suggest that the mechanism of action could be different from VSL#3.

PMID: 27832441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Long-Term Outcomes in Indeterminate Colitis Patients Undergoing Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: Function, Quality of Life, and Complications.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Long-Term Outcomes in Indeterminate Colitis Patients Undergoing Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: Function, Quality of Life, and Complications.

J Gastrointest Surg. 2016 Nov 10;

Authors: Jackson KL, Stocchi L, Duraes L, Rencuzogullari A, Bennett AE, Remzi FH

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: It is uncertain whether the outcomes of patients with indeterminate colitis (IC) undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) deteriorate over time. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term pouch function, quality of life, complications, and incidence of Crohn's disease after IPAA for patients with IC compared to ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: A case matched analysis was performed on patients undergoing IPAA for pathologically confirmed IC or UC, between 1985 and 2014. Patients were case matched for age ± 5 years, gender, date of surgery ± 3 years, type of anastomosis and presence of a diverting loop ileostomy. All patients were followed up for greater than six months.
RESULTS: 448 patients were case matched, the average age was 36.8 year old and 52.7 % of patients were male. Mean follow-up was 122.06 months (+/- 80.77 months). There were statistically and clinically comparable number of daytime bowel movements (5.7 v 5.5, p = 0.45), rates of incontinence (26.1 % v 18.3 %, p = 0.09) and nighttime seepage in patients (23.1 % v 28.4 %, p = 0.28) with IC and UC. Quality of life markers and patient restrictions were comparable between the two groups. Rates of pelvic sepsis (IC 8.5 %, UC 8.5 %, p = 0.99) and anastomotic leak (IC 3.1 %, UC 4.0 %, p = 0.61) were similar but fistula formation (IC 15.6 %, UC 8.0 %, p = 0.01) and IPAA Crohn's disease rates (IC 6.7 %, UC 2.7 %, p = 0.04) were significantly increased in IC patients. There was no statistically significant difference in pouch failure rates for IC and UC (5.8 % vs.4.9 %, p = 0.58).
CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing IPAA for IC have a higher risk of post-operative fistulae and development of Crohn's disease, but comparable morbidity, functional outcomes, quality of life scores and pouch failure rates when compared to UC patients. Long-term data confirms that IPAA is a good surgical option in patients with IC.

PMID: 27832426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Emerging biologics in inflammatory bowel disease.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Emerging biologics in inflammatory bowel disease.

J Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 10;

Authors: Chan HC, Ng SC

Abstract
Early biologic therapy is recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and poor prognostic factors and in those refractory to conventional medications. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are the most commonly used biologic agents. However, some patients may not have an initial response to anti-TNF therapy, and one-third will develop loss of response over time. Anti-TNF drugs can also be associated with side effects. In addition, the use of biologics is currently limited by their cost, especially in developing countries. A number of new therapeutic targets, including novel small molecules, and cellular therapy are available or under investigation. These novel molecules include oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor (tofacitinib), interleukin inhibitor (ustekinumab), oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide (mongersen), and anti-integrin inhibitors (vedolizumab). Here, we review the mechanisms of action, the efficacy, and the safety data of these novel agents. Biological products that are highly similar to reference biologic products whose patents have expired-also known as "biosimilars"-can be produced at lower cost with similar efficacy, and are also available for the treatment of IBD. We review the efficacy data for such agents as well.

PMID: 27832357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Retrospective evaluation of the clinical utility of serological biomarkers in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease: 2-year clinical experience.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Retrospective evaluation of the clinical utility of serological biomarkers in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease: 2-year clinical experience.

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2016 Nov 10;:

Authors: Zhang S, Luo J, Li J, Wu Z, Hu C, Li P, Deng C, Zhang F, Qian J, Li Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA), antibodies to perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (pANCA), pancreatic autoantibodies (PAB) and antibodies against intestinal goblet cells (GAB) are important in diagnosing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, little is known about their diagnostic value in real clinical practice in China. This retrospective study aimed to present our 2-year clinical experience with those biomarkers in diagnosis of CD and UC.
METHODS: A total of 140 patients with UC, 128 patients with CD, and 224 patients with intestinal associated diseases as disease controls were included. Serum ASCA were determined by ELISA. Serum pANCA, GAB, and PAB were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay. Retrospective review of laboratory results and clinical information was performed.
RESULTS: ASCA and ASCA+/pANCA- showed poor abilities in differentiating CD from UC, CD from intestinal Behçet's disease (BD), or CD from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB). In contrast, PAB exhibited good capacities in differentiating CD from UC, CD from intestinal BD, and CD from ITB. IgG pANCA demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating UC from CD. pANCA+/ASCA- or pANCA+/PAB- displayed a high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating UC from CD. GAB showed poor potential in differentiating UC from CD. PAB were positively correlated with early disease onset, ileocolonic disease, and perianal disease in CD patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that pANCA and PAB are helpful in diagnosis of UC and CD, respectively, while ASCA and GAB were not. Our findings indicate a clear need for additional biomarkers for diagnosis of CD in China.

PMID: 27831916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Psychological Challenges of Living With an Ileostomy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

The Psychological Challenges of Living With an Ileostomy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

Health Psychol. 2016 Nov 10;

Authors: Smith JA, Spiers J, Simpson P, Nicholls AR

Abstract
Objectives: Ileostomy, in which the small intestine is redirected out of an abdominal wall so that waste is collected using a bag, is used to treat conditions including inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. This article reports an in-depth idiographic analysis of the experience of living with an ileostomy. Method: Twenty-one participants took part in semistructured interviews about their lives and relationships. Those interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the experiential qualitative methodology interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Two superordinate themes arose from the data: ileostomy's intrapersonal impact and the impact of ileostomy on relationships with others. The authors found that ileostomy may destabilize the sense of self, disrupt body image, and alter experience of age and sexuality. Other participants were able to use their illness to positively reframe the self. Disclosure of ileostomy status was difficult for some. Intimate and friend relationships were often challenged by stoma status, whereas other family relationships were largely characterized as supportive. Conclusions: Ileostomy may impact upon both intra- and interpersonal aspects of the lives of those who live with it, in both negative and positive ways. Consequently, the sense of self can appear challenged, and relationships with partners, family members and friendships could be causes of distress. On the other hand, some partners were supportive, and children were found to be sources of comfort. (PsycINFO Database Record

PMID: 27831706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Executive function in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease and in healthy controls.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Executive function in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease and in healthy controls.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Oct;20(20):4299-4304

Authors: Piasecki B, Turska-Malińska R, Matthews-Brzozowska T, Mojs E

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to analyze and compare executive function performance in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in healthy controls.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 28 patients with CF, 30 patients with IBD and 30 healthy participants took part in the study (all in the age range of 7-17). All participants were in the intellectual norm. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was applied to assess executive functions.
RESULTS: The CF group received significantly (p < 0.05) poorer scores than the control and IBD groups in the following WCST indicators: Number of trials administered, Total number of errors, Perseverative errors, Non-perseverative errors, Percent of conceptual level responses, Trials to complete the first category. The IBD group was not significantly different from the control group in any of the WCST indicators.
CONCLUSIONS: To our best knowledge, results of this study are the first report of the presence of executive function deficits among pediatric patients with CF. It is also the first study that describes the performance of the executive function in IBD pediatric patients, and the first that compares cognitive functioning between CF and IBD patients.

PMID: 27831643 [PubMed - in process]

A Distinct Colon-Derived Breath Metabolome is Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, but not its Complications.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

A Distinct Colon-Derived Breath Metabolome is Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, but not its Complications.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 10;7(11):e201

Authors: Rieder F, Kurada S, Grove D, Cikach F, Lopez R, Patel N, Singh A, Alkhouri N, Shen B, Brzezinski A, Baker M, Fiocchi C, Dweik RA

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The accuracy of available noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis, stratification, and prediction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) courses is limited. We analyzed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of IBD patients and controls for diagnosis and differentiation of IBD as well as their link with disease location, activity, and phenotype.
METHODS: A prospective study of diagnostic testing was conducted, recruiting Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), other inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases (OGDs), and healthy controls (HCs), as well as subjects with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). The breath VOC profile was analyzed using selective ion flow tube-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four subjects (n=24 CD, n=11 UC, n=6 OGD, n=53 HC, n=30 IPAA) were included. The breath metabolome was significantly different in patients with IBD, CD, or UC compared with OGD and HC (7 out of 22 VOCs), but not between CD and UC. No link between the level of VOCs with complications, disease location, and clinical or radiologic disease activity, as well as lab parameters or type of medication was found. Breath VOCs were markedly different in patients with IPAA compared with any other group (17 out of 22 VOCs) and the presence of pouch inflammation did not alter the VOC levels.
CONCLUSIONS: A specific breath metabolome is associated with IBD and markedly changes in patients with IPAA. Analysis of a broader spectrum of VOCs can potentially aid in the development of breath prints to diagnose or differentiate inflammatory bowel disorders.

PMID: 27831543 [PubMed - in process]

LRRK2 enhances Nod1/2-mediated inflammatory cytokine production by promoting Rip2 phosphorylation.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

LRRK2 enhances Nod1/2-mediated inflammatory cytokine production by promoting Rip2 phosphorylation.

Protein Cell. 2016 Nov 9;

Authors: Yan R, Liu Z

Abstract
The innate immune system is critical for clearing infection, and is tightly regulated to avert excessive tissue damage. Nod1/2-Rip2 signaling, which is essential for initiating the innate immune response to bacterial infection and ER stress, is subject to many regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we found that LRRK2, encoded by a gene implicated in Crohn's disease, leprosy and familial Parkinson's disease, modulates the strength of Nod1/2-Rip2 signaling by enhancing Rip2 phosphorylation. LRRK2 deficiency markedly reduces cytokine production in macrophages upon Nod2 activation by muramyl dipeptide (MDP), Nod1 activation by D-gamma-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) or ER stress. Our biochemical study shows that the presence of LRRK2 is necessary for optimal phosphorylation of Rip2 upon Nod2 activation. Therefore, this study reveals that LRRK2 is a new positive regulator of Rip2 and promotes inflammatory cytokine induction through the Nod1/2-Rip2 pathway.

PMID: 27830463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Cutaneous involvement in chronic inflammatory bowel disease : Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis].

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

[Cutaneous involvement in chronic inflammatory bowel disease : Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis].

Hautarzt. 2016 Nov 9;

Authors: Richter L, Rappersberger K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Over recent decades, both the incidence and prevalence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease have continued to rise in industrialized countries; the disease is frequently associated with extracutaneous involvement and comorbidity.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to investigate the frequency and specificity of mucocutaneous manifestations in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive search in peer-reviewed journals via PubMed was performed; presented is a summary and analysis of various studies and data, including data of patients treated at our department.
RESULTS: CD and UC are frequently associated with mucocutaneous symptoms; however, primary/specific disease-associations are exclusively seen in CD patients. These include peri-anal and -stomal fistulas and ulcerations, "metastatic" Crohn's disease as well as oral granulomatous disease. Moreover, in both CD and UC, there occur several other inflammatory skin conditions such as erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, hidradenitis suppurativa, chronic oral aphthous disease, Sweet syndrome, pyostomatitis vegetans, and bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. Malnutrition syndromes (zinc and vitamin deficiencies) are only rarely observed.
CONCLUSION: On skin and oral/genital mucous membranes various different inflammatory manifestations may be observed during the course of CD or UC. However, most data about a direct pathogenic relationship of the gastrointestinal and dermatologic disorders are quite heterogeneous or even contradictory. Nevertheless, knowledge of these conditions and their possible association with CD and UC could be crucial for early diagnosis and initiation of an appropriate therapy and thus be essential to prevent secondary tissue damage.

PMID: 27830291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pregnancy and lactation during long-term total parenteral nutrition: A case report and literature review.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Pregnancy and lactation during long-term total parenteral nutrition: A case report and literature review.

Obstet Med. 2016 Dec;9(4):181-184

Authors: Borbolla Foster A, Dixon S, Tyrrell-Price J, Trinder J

Abstract
There is a paucity of clinical data regarding the management of pregnancy and lactation in women requiring long-term total parenteral nutrition with complex nutritional needs. This case report and literature review highlights common challenges in care and presents evidence which can guide the obstetrician's approach to care.

PMID: 27829882 [PubMed - in process]

A case of Crohn's disease complicated with simultaneous double cancers of the small bowel.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

A case of Crohn's disease complicated with simultaneous double cancers of the small bowel.

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2016;113(11):1901-1908

Authors: Obara N, Koganei K, Tatsumi K, Futatsuki R, Kuroki H, Yamada K, Arai K, Sugita A, Hayashi H, Fukushima T

Abstract
A case of Crohn's disease complicated with simultaneous double cancers of the small bowel is reported. The patient is a 66-year-old man who had suffered from Crohn's disease for 20 years. He underwent surgery to identify the source of repeated episodes of intestinal obstruction. Two short segments of strictures and proximal dilatations were found in the distal ileum. Therefore, we performed an en bloc resection of the two stenotic sections instead of strictureplasty. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed not only Crohn's disease but also a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma within each of the two strictures. One had invaded to the muscular layer and the other to the subserosal layer. In cases of Crohn's disease with longstanding stenosis, the probability of carcinoma should be considered.

PMID: 27829602 [PubMed - in process]

Power estimation and sample size determination for replication studies of genome-wide association studies.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Power estimation and sample size determination for replication studies of genome-wide association studies.

BMC Genomics. 2016 Jan 11;17 Suppl 1:3

Authors: Jiang W, Yu W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Replication study is a commonly used verification method to filter out false positives in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). If an association can be confirmed in a replication study, it will have a high confidence to be true positive. To design a replication study, traditional approaches calculate power by treating replication study as another independent primary study. These approaches do not use the information given by primary study. Besides, they need to specify a minimum detectable effect size, which may be subjective. One may think to replace the minimum effect size with the observed effect sizes in the power calculation. However, this approach will make the designed replication study underpowered since we are only interested in the positive associations from the primary study and the problem of the "winner's curse" will occur.
RESULTS: An Empirical Bayes (EB) based method is proposed to estimate the power of replication study for each association. The corresponding credible interval is estimated in the proposed approach. Simulation experiments show that our method is better than other plug-in based estimators in terms of overcoming the winner's curse and providing higher estimation accuracy. The coverage probability of given credible interval is well-calibrated in the simulation experiments. Weighted average method is used to estimate the average power of all underlying true associations. This is used to determine the sample size of replication study. Sample sizes are estimated on 6 diseases from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) using our method. They are higher than sample sizes estimated by plugging observed effect sizes in power calculation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our new method can objectively determine replication study's sample size by using information extracted from primary study. Also the winner's curse is alleviated. Thus, it is a better choice when designing replication studies of GWAS. The R-package is available at: http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/RPower.html .

PMID: 26818952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Case series of patients with chronic foot ulcers treated with autologous platelet-rich plasma.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Case series of patients with chronic foot ulcers treated with autologous platelet-rich plasma.

J Dermatol. 2015 Mar;42(3):288-95

Authors: Yotsu RR, Hagiwara S, Okochi H, Tamaki T

Abstract
Treatment for patients with chronic wounds is entering a new era, and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is among the most promising treatments. PRP contains a concentration of platelets obtained by centrifuging the patient's blood. Because it contains fibrin and high concentrations of growth factors, PRP is known to promote wound healing. In this study, we present five patients with chronic foot ulcers successfully treated with PRP in our institution. The patients had various underlying diseases: diabetes (n = 2), peripheral arterial disease (n = 1), both diabetes and peripheral arterial disease (n = 1), and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (n = 1). Also, we provide a description of PRP's mechanisms, advantages, and limitations.

PMID: 25615024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pages

Subscribe to IBD Scotland aggregator - Recent IBD publications