IBD on PubMed

Genetic deletion of the bacterial sensor NOD2 improves murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independent of functional dysbiosis.

New papers on PubMed -

Genetic deletion of the bacterial sensor NOD2 improves murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independent of functional dysbiosis.

Mucosal Immunol. 2016 Nov 16;:

Authors: Corridoni D, Rodriguez-Palacios A, Di Stefano G, Di Martino L, Antonopoulos DA, Chang EB, Arseneau KO, Pizarro TT, Cominelli F

Abstract
Although genetic polymorphisms in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), little is known regarding the role of wild-type (WT) NOD2 in the gut. To date, most murine studies addressing the role of WT Nod2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains. Here, we evaluated the effects of Nod2 deletion in a murine model of spontaneous ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1Yit/Fc (SAMP) strain, which closely resembles CD. Remarkably, Nod2 deletion improved both chronic cobblestone ileitis (by 50% assessed, as the % of abnormal mucosa at 24 wks of age), as well as acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. Mechanistically, Th2 cytokine production and Th2-transcription factor activation (i.e., STAT6 phosphorylation) were reduced. Microbiologically, the effects of Nod2 deletion appeared independent of fecal microbiota composition and function, assessed by 16S rRNA and metatranscriptomics. Our findings indicate that pharmacological blockade of NOD2 signaling in humans could improve health in Th2-driven chronic intestinal inflammation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 16 November 2016. doi:10.1038/mi.2016.98.

PMID: 27848951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

New papers on PubMed -

Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

Med Sci Monit. 2016 Nov 16;22:4393-4400

Authors: Qin G, Tu J, Liu L, Luo L, Wu J, Tao L, Zhang C, Geng X, Chen X, Ai X, Shen B, Pan W

Abstract
BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, P<0.01), CRP levels (r=0.39, P<0.01), and CRP/ALB ratio (r=0.42, P<0.01) all correlated with CD activity. These correlations were more prominent in males. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (P<0.05). CRP level (14.55 mg/L), ALB level (34.35 g/L), and CRP/ALB ratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

PMID: 27848931 [PubMed - in process]

Immunoanalytical characteristics of fecal calprotectin.

New papers on PubMed -

Immunoanalytical characteristics of fecal calprotectin.

Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2016 Dec 1;74(6):725-734

Authors: Desbène C, Gaillard O, Kapel N

Abstract
Besides structural and physiological data of calprotectin, this paper points out the optimal conditions for sampling, fecal assays and interpretation of results.

PMID: 27848924 [PubMed - in process]

The gut-kidney axis.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

The gut-kidney axis.

Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Nov 15;

Authors: Evenepoel P, Poesen R, Meijers B

Abstract
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interactions are bidirectional; on the one hand, uremia affects both the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota and, on the other hand, important uremic toxins originate from microbial metabolism. In addition, gut dysbiosis may induce a disruption of the epithelial barrier, ultimately resulting in increased exposure of the host to endotoxins. Due to dietary restrictions and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, microbial metabolism shifts to a predominantly proteolytic fermentation pattern in CKD. Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, both end-products of protein fermentation, and trimethylamine-N-oxide, an end-product of microbial choline and carnitine metabolism, are prototypes of uremic toxins originating from microbial metabolism. The vascular and renal toxicity of these co-metabolites has been demonstrated extensively in experimental and clinical studies. These co-metabolites are an appealing target for adjuvant therapy in CKD. Treatment options include dietary therapy, prebiotics, probiotics and host and bacterial enzyme inhibitors. Final proof of the concept should come from randomized controlled and adequately powered intervention studies.

PMID: 27848096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Magnetic resonance evaluation for small bowel strictures in Crohn's disease: comparison with balloon enteroscopy.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Magnetic resonance evaluation for small bowel strictures in Crohn's disease: comparison with balloon enteroscopy.

J Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 15;

Authors: Takenaka K, Ohtsuka K, Kitazume Y, Matsuoka K, Fujii T, Nagahori M, Kimura M, Fujioka T, Araki A, Watanabe M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the recommended technique for detection of small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease. We aimed to evaluate the impact of stricture findings obtained by MR imaging on patient outcomes using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) as a reference.
METHODS: Two hundred Crohn's disease patients undergoing both MR enterocolonography and BAE were prospectively followed up for at least 1 year. The presence of strictures detected by MR enterocolonography was compared with endoscopic findings. Moreover, the relationship between MR findings and surgery was evaluated.
RESULTS: The accuracy of MR imaging for detection of small bowel strictures was defined by a sensitivity of 60.6% and a specificity of 93.4%. Major strictures (diameter less than 10 mm or with internal fistula), long strictures (length 10 mm or greater), and prestenotic dilatation were predictors of stricture detection by MR imaging (P = 0.001, 0.017, and 0.002 respectively). Surgery was performed in 31.6% of patients (18 of 57) in the MR-positive-BAE-positive stricture group and in 10.8% of patients (4 of 37) in the MR-negative-BAE-positive stricture group. Multiple regression analysis showed MR-positive-BAE-positive strictures were an independent risk factor for surgery (P = 0.002 at 6 months and P < 0.001 at 1 year). The surgery-free rate in the MR-negative-BAE-positive stricture group was significantly lower than that in nonstricture group at 1 year (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The specificity of MR imaging for detection of small bowel strictures was clinically sufficient, and the MR procedure could detect critical strictures, which was a predictive factor for surgery. But MR-negative-BAE-positive strictures were also associated with an increased risk compared with no strictures after 1 year of follow-up.

PMID: 27848026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Ulcerative Colitis in Colonic Interposition for Esophageal Atresia.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Ulcerative Colitis in Colonic Interposition for Esophageal Atresia.

ACG Case Rep J. 2016 Aug;3(4):e149

Authors: Arshad HM, Tetangco E, Elkhatib I

Abstract
A 38-year-old male with a history of colonic interposition for esophageal atresia as an infant presented with dysphagia and abdominal pain. On the basis of endoscopy findings, pathology, and response to therapy, he was found to have ulcerative colitis of the colonic conduit.

PMID: 27847835 [PubMed - in process]

Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Hydroalcoholic Extract from Inflorescences of Achyrocline satureioides (Compositae) Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Attenuation in the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Mediators.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:3475356

Authors: da Silva LM, Farias JA, Boeing T, Somensi LB, Beber AP, Cury BJ, Santin JR, Faloni de Andrade S

Abstract
Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1-100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon. The colonic content of cytokines (TNF, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) was measured. Additionally, the effects of the extract on nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl levels were determined. Mucin levels and SOD activity, as well as the LOOH, MPO, TNF, and IL-6 accumulation in colon tissues, were normalized by the HEAS administration. In addition, the extract elicited an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 levels in colon. NO release by macrophages was inhibited by HEAS and its scavenger activity was confirmed. Together these results suggest that preparations obtained from inflorescences from A. satureioides could be used in treatment for IBD. Besides, this work corroborates the popular use of A. satureioides in inflammatory disorders.

PMID: 27847525 [PubMed - in process]

Regulatory effects of glycyrrhizae radix extract on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

New papers on PubMed -

Related Articles

Regulatory effects of glycyrrhizae radix extract on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Nov 16;16(1):459

Authors: Jeon YD, Bang KS, Shin MK, Lee JH, Chang YN, Jin JS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely-used in clinical health care. The clinical functions of GR include relief of toxicity, anti-cancer, regulating blood cholesterol and anti-inflammation. This study investigated the role of GR on ulcerative colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis.
METHOD: Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses were done on male BALB/c mice administered 5 % DSS during the experimental period. Ethanol extracts of GR were orally administered at same time daily to control mice. The severity of colitis was measured by body weight change and colon length.
RESULT: DSS-treated mice displayed weight loss and shortened colon length compared with control mice. Mice were administered GR showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-treated group. Inflammatory cytokines were decreased by GR treatment. Treatment also reduced DSS-induced microscopic damage to colon tissue. GR regulated the phosphorylation of transcription factors such as NF-κB p65 and IκB α.
CONCLUSIONS: GR has beneficial effects in a colitis model. GR might be a useful herb medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

PMID: 27846836 [PubMed - in process]

A pathogenic role for T cell-derived IL-22BP in inflammatory bowel disease.

New papers on PubMed -

A pathogenic role for T cell-derived IL-22BP in inflammatory bowel disease.

Science. 2016 Oct 21;354(6310):358-362

Authors: Pelczar P, Witkowski M, Perez LG, Kempski J, Hammel AG, Brockmann L, Kleinschmidt D, Wende S, Haueis C, Bedke T, Witkowski M, Krasemann S, Steurer S, Booth CJ, Busch P, König A, Rauch U, Benten D, Izbicki JR, Rösch T, Lohse AW, Strowig T, Gagliani N, Flavell RA, Huber S

Abstract
Intestinal inflammation can impair mucosal healing, thereby establishing a vicious cycle leading to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the signaling networks driving chronic inflammation remain unclear. Here we report that CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with IBD produce high levels of interleukin-22 binding protein (IL-22BP), the endogenous inhibitor of the tissue-protective cytokine IL-22. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that IBD development requires T cell-derived IL-22BP. Lastly, intestinal CD4(+) T cells isolated from IBD patients responsive to treatment with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α), the most effective known IBD therapy, exhibited reduced amounts of IL-22BP expression but still expressed IL-22. Our findings suggest that anti-TNF-α therapy may act at least in part by suppressing IL-22BP and point toward a more specific potential therapy for IBD.

PMID: 27846573 [PubMed - in process]

Efficacy and Safety of Oral Beclomethasone Dipropionate in Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

New papers on PubMed -

Efficacy and Safety of Oral Beclomethasone Dipropionate in Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166455

Authors: Manguso F, Bennato R, Lombardi G, Riccio E, Costantino G, Fries W

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all the available evidence comparing efficacy and safety of oral prolonged released beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) to active oral controls in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). A subgroup-analysis compared the effectiveness of BDP and 5-ASA.
METHODS: Literature research was performed in different databases, as well as manual search to identify abstracts from international meetings with data not included in extensive publications. Experts in the field and companies involved in BDP development and manufacture were contacted to identify unpublished studies used for registration purposes. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain odds ratio meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials that compared oral BDP 5mg/day vs. all oral active controls in treating UC were identified as eligible. Efficacy and safety have been addressed after 4-week treatment period. One study evaluated efficacy and safety of BDP vs. prednisone and 4 of BDP vs. 5-ASA. Treatment with oral BDP 5 mg/day induces a significant better clinical response compared to oral 5-ASA (OR 1.86, 95% CI = 1.23-2.82, P = 0.003). The effect is detectable even when the comparison to prednisone is added (OR 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03-1.93, P = 0.03). Data on remission indicate that the potential clinical efficacy of BDP may be better than 5-ASA (OR 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00-2.40, P = 0.05). This difference is lost when the comparison with prednisone is added (OR 1.30, 95% CI = 0.76-2.23, P = 0.34). The safety analysis showed no differences between BDP and 5-ASA (OR 0.55, 95% CI = 0.24-1.27, P = 0.16). The lack of difference is maintained even when the study with prednisone is added (OR 0.67, 95% CI = 0.44-1.01, P = 0.06). However, the trend of difference is clear and indicates a more favourable safety profile of BDP compared to 5-ASA and PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral prolonged release BDP showed a superior efficacy vs. oral 5-ASA in inducing clinical improvement of mild-to-moderate UC with a similar safety profile.

PMID: 27846307 [PubMed - in process]

Costs of Crohn's Disease According to Severity States in France: A Prospective Observational Study and Statistical Modeling over 10 Years.

New papers on PubMed -

Costs of Crohn's Disease According to Severity States in France: A Prospective Observational Study and Statistical Modeling over 10 Years.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Dec;22(12):2924-2932

Authors: Boschetti G, Nancey S, Daniel F, Pariente B, Lerebours E, Duclos B, Bourreille A, Cadiot G, Fumery M, Moreau J, Marteau P, Bouhnik Y, Louis E, Flourié B, GETAID

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To describe the medico-economic characteristics of Crohn's disease (CD), we implemented a multicenter study in France.
METHODS: From 2004 to 2006, disease severity states, direct (hospital and extra hospital) and indirect costs were prospectively collected over 1 year in patients with CD naive from anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (infliximab) at inclusion. Economic valorization was performed from the French Social Insurance perspective, and a statistical modeling over 10 years was performed.
RESULTS: In 341 patients, the mean total costs of management were &OV0556;6024 per year (&OV0556;4675 for direct costs). As compared to patients in remission, costs were 4 to 6 times higher in patients in an active period and 19 times higher for patients requiring surgery (SURG). The most important expense items were medical and surgical hospitalizations (56% of total costs), including cost of infliximab (36% of hospitalization costs, i.e., 20% of total costs), indirect costs (22%), and drugs (11%). The statistical modeling over 10 years showed that most of the clinical course was spent in drug-responsive state (54%) with 26% of costs or in remission (32%) with 11% of costs; time spent in a SURG state was small (3.2%) but generated 48% of total costs.
CONCLUSIONS: Before the introduction of self-injectable anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha, the most important expenses were supported by hospitalizations, explaining why the most costly states were for patients requiring SURG or dependent on inhospital administrated drugs. Projected data show that most time is spent in a stabilized state with appropriate treatments or in remission, and that costs associated with SURG are high.

PMID: 27846194 [PubMed - in process]

Predictors of Emergency Department Use by Persons with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Population-based Study.

New papers on PubMed -

Predictors of Emergency Department Use by Persons with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Population-based Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Dec;22(12):2907-2916

Authors: Nugent Z, Singh H, Targownik LE, Strome T, Snider C, Bernstein CN

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To describe the patterns and predictors of emergency department (ED) attendance and post-ED hospitalization by persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
METHODS: We linked the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database with the Emergency Department Information System of the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority to determine the rates of presentation to the ED by persons with IBD from January 01, 2009 to March 31, 2012. Incident cases were diagnosed during the study period and all others were considered prevalent cases. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of attendance in the ED and for hospitalization within 2 days of ED attendance.
RESULTS: The study population included 300 incident and 3394 prevalent IBD cases, of whom 76% and 49%, respectively, attended the ED at least once during the study period. Incident cases with Crohn's disease or with a history of opioid use were more likely to attend the ED. Those who had seen a gastroenterologist within the year before diagnosis were less likely to visit the ED. Among prevalent cases, higher comorbidity, opioid or corticosteroid use, and recent hospital admission were predictive of ED attendance and those who saw only 1 physician in the preceding year had lower ED attendance. Presenting to the ED with a primary gastrointestinal complaint was the strongest predictor of subsequent hospital admission.
CONCLUSIONS: ED attendance by both incident and prevalent cases of IBD is high. Identified predictors of ED attendance and post-ED hospitalization could guide the optimization of outpatient IBD care to limit ED attendance and potentially post-ED hospitalization.

PMID: 27846193 [PubMed - in process]

Crohn's Disease Is Associated with the Risk for Thyroid Cancer.

New papers on PubMed -

Crohn's Disease Is Associated with the Risk for Thyroid Cancer.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Dec;22(12):2902-2906

Authors: Wadhwa V, Lopez R, Shen B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is known that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a high risk for some of extraintestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to identify whether IBD is associated with thyroid cancer using a large national database.
METHODS: We performed a case-control study using the 2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. The study group included all patients with Crohn's disease (CD) (ICD-9 Code: 555) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (ICD-9 Code: 556), and the control group included all patients with diverticulitis (ICD-9 Code: 562.11, 562.13). Both univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess the risk factors associated with thyroid cancer.
RESULTS: We analyzed more than 28 million hospitalizations in 2012, with 289,935 being IBD-related admissions and 315,145 being diverticulitis-related admissions. Subjects who had IBD were found to be significantly more likely to have thyroid cancer than those with diverticulitis (odds ratio = 1.97 [1.5-2.6], P = 0.033). There was no difference between men and women in the prevalence of thyroid cancer in IBD (P = 0.6). There was no difference between CD and UC (P = 0.14) and between UC and diverticulitis (P = 0.93). In multivariate analysis, CD was found to be associated with thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.3 [1.06-5.1], P = 0.034). Age was shown to be a protective factor in the presence of thyroid cancer (P < 0.005), and a higher Charlson comorbidity index was associated with the presence of thyroid cancer (odds ratio, 1.5 [1.3-1.7]; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that CD, not UC, is associated with a higher risk for thyroid cancer. It is recommended that patients with CD may need a close monitoring of thyroid diseases.

PMID: 27846192 [PubMed - in process]

Noncoding Transcribed Ultraconserved Region (T-UCR) uc.261 Participates in Intestinal Mucosa Barrier Damage in Crohn's Disease.

New papers on PubMed -

Noncoding Transcribed Ultraconserved Region (T-UCR) uc.261 Participates in Intestinal Mucosa Barrier Damage in Crohn's Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Dec;22(12):2840-2852

Authors: Qian XX, Peng JC, Xu AT, Zhao D, Qiao YQ, Wang TR, Shen J, Ran ZH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date, 481 ultraconserved regions (UCRs) have been discovered in human genome. We aimed to investigate the transcribed UCR (T-UCR) characteristics in Crohn's disease (CD ) and determine whether T-UCR uc.261 participated in intestinal mucosa barrier damage.
METHODS: T-UCRs were screened in active CD mucosa using the Arraystar Human T-UCR Microarray and validated with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, together with tight junction proteins (TJPs) including junctional adhesion molecule-A, occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occluden-1. T-UCR uc.261 in active CD mucosa was validated by RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Caco2 and T84 cells were employed to determine transepithelial electrical resistance. Cdc42, protein kinase C ζ, PAR3, and PAR6 were assessed with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. The assembly of TJPs was detected using cell immunofluorescence assay.
RESULTS: Four T-UCRs were significantly upregulated (uc.290-, uc.144-, uc.261-, and uc.477+) and 4 T-UCRs were downregulated (uc.166-, uc.141-, uc.478+, and uc.479+). Uc.261 was inversely correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance during tight junction formation. The levels of TJPs were diminished in active CD mucosa. Most uc.261s were located in the cytoplasm of colonic epithelial cells. Overexpression of uc.261 reduced transepithelial electrical resistance, inhibited the expression and assembly of TJPs, activated Cdc42, and suppressed protein kinase C ζ. Silencing of uc.261 in TNF-α-treated cells reversed the tight junction damage.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of uc.261 participates in intestinal mucosa barrier damage. Suppression of uc.261 reverses the damage to tight junction in inflammation. Attenuation of uc.261 overexpression might be a rational strategy to manage patients with CD.

PMID: 27846191 [PubMed - in process]

Prevalence and Patterns of Marijuana Use in Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

New papers on PubMed -

Prevalence and Patterns of Marijuana Use in Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Nov 14;

Authors: Phatak UP, Rojas-Velasquez D, Porto A, Pashankar DS

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies in adults report symptom relief with marijuana use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the prevalence, pattern, effects and adverse effects of marijuana use in young adults with IBD.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective questionnaire survey study at a pediatric IBD clinic. All patients (18 to 21 years of age) answered anonymous questionnaires about demographics, IBD, medications and marijuana use.
RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (Mean age 18.7 years; 32 males) were enrolled. Thirty-seven patients (70%) reported using marijuana currently or in the past. There was no statistically significant difference between the users and non-users of marijuana regarding demographics, disease activity or medications. Despite prolonged use of marijuana, 70% of patients did not discuss it with their gastroenterologists. Twenty-four patients used marijuana medicinally for IBD symptoms in addition to medical therapy. While majority found marijuana to be moderately/very helpful, complete relief of symptoms such as abdominal pain, poor appetite, nausea and diarrhea was seen in 29%, 37%, 14% and 10% of patients respectively. Only half of patients reported knowledge of possible adverse effects of marijuana and 19% of patients reported mild neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Overall, 98% of patients supported legalization of marijuana and 85% were interested in using medical marijuana if it became legally available.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of marijuana use in our cohort of young adults with IBD. Majority of users report symptom improvement but do not inform physicians. Future well controlled studies are necessary to assess role of marijuana in IBD therapy.

PMID: 27846066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

IBD LIVE Case Series-Case 6: Persistent Skin Lesions in a Patient with Crohn's Disease: You Hear Hoof Beats and Discover a Zebra.

New papers on PubMed -

IBD LIVE Case Series-Case 6: Persistent Skin Lesions in a Patient with Crohn's Disease: You Hear Hoof Beats and Discover a Zebra.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Nov;22(11):2754-2764

Authors: Rajan D, Greer JB, Regueiro MD, Baidoo L, Binion DG, Herfarth HH, Siegel CA, Hartman DJ, Farraye FA, Koutroubakis IE, Brand MH, Williams ED, Goyal A, Cross RK

PMID: 27846035 [PubMed - in process]

Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a double-blind, randomized, single-center trial.

New papers on PubMed -

Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a double-blind, randomized, single-center trial.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Nov 11;

Authors: Falt P, Šmajstrla V, Fojtík P, Hill M, Urban O

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Bowel distension by insufflated air causes abdominal discomfort after colonoscopy. Carbon dioxide (CO2) instead of air insufflation during colonoscopy can reduce postprocedural discomfort in diagnostic and screening cases. Discomfort after colonoscopy and CO2 insufflation have never been studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, characterized by younger age, structural changes of the colon, and need for repeated and frequently uncomfortable colonoscopies. Our trial was designed to evaluate postprocedural discomfort associated with CO2 compared with air insufflation in unsedated or minimally sedated patients with known IBD.
METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, single-center study, 64 patients were randomized to either CO2 insufflation (CO2) or air insufflation colonoscopy (Air). Abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence scores during 24 h after colonoscopy were recorded using a continuous scale of 0-10 (0=none, 10=maximum discomfort). The primary endpoint used for power calculation was bloating score at 1 h after colonoscopy.
RESULTS: Pain, bloating, and flatulence scores at end, 1, and 3 h after colonoscopy were significantly lower in CO2 than in Air arm (P<0.001). Scores at 6, 12, and 24 h were comparable. Procedural parameters such as cecal and terminal ileum intubation rate, intubation and total time, pain during insertion, need for repositioning, and abdominal compression were not different between arms. No complications were recorded in the study.
CONCLUSION: Compared with air, CO2 insufflation significantly reduces abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence scores during at least 3 h after colonoscopy in IBD patients, achieving comparable intraprocedural outcomes.

PMID: 27845950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Anti-inflammatory effect of novel analogs of natural enkephalinase inhibitors in a mouse model of experimental colitis.

New papers on PubMed -

Anti-inflammatory effect of novel analogs of natural enkephalinase inhibitors in a mouse model of experimental colitis.

Future Med Chem. 2016 Nov 15;

Authors: Kamysz E, Sałaga M, Sobocińska M, Giełdoń A, Fichna J

Abstract
AIM: The pharmacotherapy of inflammatory bowel disease is difficult and currently available treatments bring mostly poor and unsatisfactory results.
RESULTS: The purpose of this work was the synthesis of opiorphin, sialorphin, spinorphin and a series of their analogs and the in vitro characterization of their effect on degradation of enkephalin by neutral endopeptidase and aminopeptidase N. Consequently, we investigated in vivo the anti-inflammatory effect of the most active inhibitors selected in the in vitro studies (Pal-KKQRFSR & Pal-KKQHNPR). Putative inhibitor - enzyme (neutral endopeptidase or aminopeptidase N) complexes are also presented and their binding interfaces are identified.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Pal-KKQHNPR has the potential to become a valuable template for anti-inflammatory therapeutics for the treatment of GI tract inflammation.

PMID: 27845570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Changes in Bone Strength and Structure.

New papers on PubMed -

Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Changes in Bone Strength and Structure.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 15;:

Authors: Targownik LE, Goertzen AL, Luo Y, Leslie WD

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Multiple studies have reported an association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and fracture. However, the causality of this association is questionable, as there is not a well defined mechanism of action, nor is there evidence of an effect on PPIs on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). It is possible that PPIs may induce changes in bone structure which would predispose to fracture in the absence of changes in aBMD. We used three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (3D-QCT) imaging to determine if long-term PPI use was associated with structural changes in bone independent of aBMD.
METHODS: We enrolled a sample of long-term (≥5 years) PPI users matched to a similar cohort of persons with no PPI use in the previous 5 years. All subjects underwent assessment of aBMD using DXA, volumetric BMD using 3D-QCT, as well as markers of bone metabolism. Measures of bone strength, including buckling ratio and section modulus, were also compared between the two samples.
RESULTS: 104 subjects were enrolled (52 PPI users and 52 PPI non-users). There were no differences detected in standard BMD, volumetric BMD, markers of bone metabolism or measures of bone strength between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PPI use is not associated with any changes in bone mineral density or bone strength that would predispose to an increased risk of fracture. These findings provide further evidence that the association between PPI use and fracture is not causal.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 15 November 2016; doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.481.

PMID: 27845341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pages

Subscribe to IBD Scotland aggregator - Recent IBD publications